Values are long lasting beliefs about what is important. Values are paramount to the study of the organisational behaviour and the pushing force affecting human decision because values have a significant influence on the perceptions and motivation of the people at work. Human personality and personal values are a very influential in affecting human behaviour.
Values are so much embedded into the people that they look up to from people’s behaviour and their attitudes. Personally, I have many values. However, the most important values are related to my family, my race and my memories.
Family is something I value the most. Family is my life because no matter what happens, my family would always support me. Without family, I would not have what I have now. My family taught me that no matter how sour life is, I should never give up, as my family would always be there to support me. They taught me many important values about life that I would carry with me for the rest of my life. Regardless how many good friends you have, they will never be there to support you forever. However not everyone has a perfect family; therefore, I must learn to appreciate what I have now. Not everyone is as lucky as I am, having a family that cares that look out for you in difficult times.
Race is another important value to me. My colours describe me. I am born Asian. Commonly people stereotypical Asians as smart people and because of such belief, I am always under the pressure of being smart. My parents are not highly educated like me, for my mum didn’t attend school due to culture influences, and for that reason, she wants me to have a good education for a better future. My mother would always tell me to study hard, and that education is vital. This is why I value my family so much; it is because they always point me towards the right direction.
Ethnicity causes people to have different perception and value of life. My parents have high expectations of me and those expectations become my expectations. This makes me want to improve further in life. Ethnicity also covers culture and religion. Despite many superstitions in my religion, I still believe in some of them because I was brought up in a superstitious environment and I find some of them very intriguing. As of my Heritage, I love the culture behind it. What interested me the most is the people of my culture, because it show us of why people act nowadays due to the teachings of the past. We should value the fact that we have more literate and educated people compared to other countries, and what I value more is that me being able to communicate in more than one language, giving me an extra advantage in life. I would’ve never been able to understand the meanings of the Chinese literature if I did not pick up Chinese. I am euphoric for what I have learned because of my ethnicity, and I value all traits that I possess.
Lastly are my Memories, they are unique to each person; hence, one must value their memory. I appreciate my memory as reminds me of the events that happen to me in my life. Without my valuable memories, I would not be able to be who I am today. The best thing is that no one can take away your memory. Life would be meaningless without a memory of people and things that are most precious to you. Memories are of importance value to me in life as I depend on the happier days to get through the sadder times of life. If I’m angry or depressed, I will look back into the positive times, and that would make me feel better.
In conclusions, everyone values some things in their life. My values help me develop myself for what I am today. Family is the most important, ethnicity is just what comes after, and memories are things that I would never trade away. My Life would be empty if I had no values, and I’m sure it’s the same for everyone else. Values are essential to a person’s life development.
The discourse about social cohesion in Singapore has rarely been in discussions due to its diverse social integration and multicultural society. Multiple races living together divides and creates divisions in society started to feature in the discourse (Hassan, 2013). Combined with the growing economy, increasing disagreement with the authorities and fast paced urbanisation, Singaporeans fear that social cohesion would be weakened (Hassan, 2013) (Hulse & Stone, 2006).
According to studies, the socially cohesive community is needed to achieve social sustainability (Magis & Shinn, 2009). There are many social issues are discussed under the concept of social sustainability and often defined about social cohesion, capitalism and inclusion, all of which indicate closer and longer term relationships among people of a community to achieve common goals and social harmony (Brameley & Morgan, 2009).
Social capital is regarded as an integral element of social cohesion as it is considered as the social resources inherent in the social networks and structures. Social networks and structures enable people to achieve shared and individual goals (Putnam, 1995). Putnam argues that social capital is the most efficient policy for policy makers to implement for a more cohesive country.
Countries with higher levels of cohesion tend to have bigger communities, better education system, better welfare, lower crime rates, booming economic prosperity, as well as longer longevity (Baron, Field, J., & Schuller, 2001).
Researchers also believed that social capital could be used as preventive or curative measures to resolve community problems, Problems such as social exclusion and neighbourhood arguments (Putnam, 1995).
Low-income communities are commonly know to be lacking in social cohesion. This is because low income communities are likely to involve higher rates of unusual behaviours as it reinforces a community's sense of belonging(Friedrichs & Blasius, 2003). Similarly, public housing tenants feel ashamed of their disadvantaged economic conditions, will have negative views toward their neighbours in the same block and have no interest in resolving community issues peacefully. Such actions are indicative of a lack of social bonding between communities (Han, 2010).
The image of community is also likely to be aggravated (Baliey, Haworth, Manzi, Paranagamage, & Roberts, 2006). Moreover, the hostile physical environment of disadvantaged communities seems to weaken residents' community attachment (Forrest & Kearns, 1999).
Research on housing and urban planning has emphasised the importance of government policy in building socially equal communities (Hulse & Stone, 2006). Historically, there have been numerous attempts to achieve certain social goals as part of the outcomes of planning and design of neighbourhoods.
According to a study done by Seo (2013) on 'Social Cohesiveness of Korean public housing communities' it has highlighted that social cohesion between residents in disadvantaged communities is affected by the physical environment around them. Furthermore, the study uncovered how the design, planning and management of the enivornnment promoted social cohesiveness.
Singapore currently has 50,000 rental flats, with 7,000 more to be built by 2015 (Housing Development Board, 2013). The purpose of the Public Rental Scheme is to meet the housing needs of poorer households. As of March 2012, 3% of the Singapore's total population were living in HDB which is also referred to public housing (Legislatively Council Secretariat, 2013). Lawhon (2009) believed that the layout of the district would improve the chances for face-to-face interaction to build up relations.
Singapore reduces social problems by mixing low-income rental housing with the owner-occupied housing of different sizes, and building public estate near to condominiums and landed housing areas (Wu, 2014). However, the proportion of residents living in rental flats exists along a continuum with higher proportions in richer regions such as Bukit Merah, Kallang and Geylang and lower portions in areas such as Seng Kang, Pasir Ris and Punggol (Department of Statistics, 2013) (Housing Development Board, 2013).
The Sample Household Survey conducted in 2008 showed high levels of social capital, community bonding and satisfaction among residents of public housing and this confirmed the presence of active cohesion between communities in Singapore (Housing Development Board, 2010).
After understanding the international and Singapore approach to social cohesiveness in disadvantaged communities and Singapore's public housing situation, There are some research gaps to be questioned. Firstly, there is a lack of historical data on the social cohesiveness of residents living in public housing. Secondly, there is a lack of understanding of how the physical environment of public housing affects the social cohesiveness of Singaporeans. Lastly, there is a lack of research on the impact of the physical layout of neighbourhoods of public housing.
In conclusion, the underlying factors that would influence the relationship between the physical environment and social cohesiveness in Singapore are still inconclusive due to lack of information.
As such, our proposed is to address the problems mentioned above gaps to provide recommendations that would enhance the development of communities, especially among economically disadvantaged communities residing in public housing.
PESTLE Analysis for Singapore Airlines
Every industry bets heavily on legislative and regulatory changes, so does airline industry. Even though the airline industry has become deregulated but it’s still heavily controlled by the authorities. Hence we may still expect sometimes government policy plays a significant role in the development of the industry and may impact industry profitability and competition landscape. Therefore, when the airline industry is embracing the market liberalisation, each player in the industry should be clearly aware of the political force or policy makers due to their constant, lasting influence on this industry. For instance, because of the oil price slump in past two years, the airline industry has been facing mounting pressure from the government to unwind fuel surcharges. Another example is
ASEAN‘s recent move to open its air space to all its members, meaning airlines of ASEAN’s member country will face new opportunity and freedom to fly within this region. However, the competition level will increase.
Economic factors affect airline industry to a great extent because the aviation sector is closely linked to national, regional and international economic development. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth, interest rates, business cycle’s and crude oil prices always have a significant impact on almost every industry, including airline industry. Research conducted by the International Air Transport Association (or IATA) revealed that disposable incomes growth which closely follows GDP growth is the primary demand driver for the travel by air. A forecast released by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) suggests that world GDP will grow 3.4% (inflation-adjusted) in 2016, higher than the 3.1% growth estimated for2015. On top of that, IATA forecasts passenger travel demand will continue to grow6.9% in 2016 compared to 6.7% growth projected for 2015.
Social environment also has a significant impact on the airline industry. Because every consumer is a social human being, whose behaviour is influenced by social norms and unspoken rules of a particular group. Studies have suggested different demographic groups tend to have different consumer habits. For example, millennial generation behaves quite differently from baby boomers. With millennial generation entering their peak income stage, studying their travel preferences will help airlines pinpoint their particular demand and develop appropriate product and service for them.So categorising different generations, examining demographic and sociological attributes are of important significance for airlines.SIA needs proactively review the social attributes as it may present future opportunities.
Technological advancements could be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, technology advancement is a major driver in improving airline efficiency, lowering operation costs, enhancing overall customer experience, personalising customer service. On the contrary, the technology could pose a threat to airlines which could change the way how we live, work and interact with people. For example, Skype web-meeting is becoming prevalent now which could potentially lower the demand for a face-to-face meeting, meaning business travel demand could be reduced.
Due to low significance in Legal and Environmental factors, the author opts to skip the discussion on them.
Limitation of the PESTLE
PESTLE is a comprehensive tool that helps the author to understand the external environment that Singapore Airlines is operating in, but like many other models, it has limitations.Because the external environment is fluid, data mining is very time-consuming and subjective, and because of author’s limited ability and resources constraints, the data collected may not be updated, and relevant, which could cause the analysis is not accurate